Response 996752104

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Your comments

Survey questions

What do you think are the two or three most significant recent developments in hydrogen?
CSIRO - Membrane separation from Ammonia Sea Water Electrolysis - Metal coating around electrodes (Stanford chemist Hongjie Dai) Hazer Process - conversion of CH4 to C(graphite) and Hydrogen ( using Iron Oxide as catalysts).
What are the most important safety issues to consider in producing, handling and using hydrogen in Australia?
It depends on the application. If for stationary usage, metal hydrides would be preferable. For vehicular hydrogen storage applications ( pressurised container - carbon fibre based cylinder upto 700 bar should be the norm. Special care should be taken during depressurisation i.e. Joule Thompson effect ( Temp may go high ) and also static electricity if there is a metallic part in the pipeline/exit. Presence of any other gas molecules/hydrocarbon may lead to retrograde behaviour particularly at high pressure ( super critical conditions). For all such mixtures, the isotherms should be studied/modelled properly.
What environmental and community impacts should we examine?
A triple bottom line evaluation is needed that is an indepth study of socio -economic and environmental impact. Environmental impact would be on the positive side except the embedded CO2 emissions that would occur during the production of parts/equipment.
How can Australia influence and accelerate the development of a global market for hydrogen?
Australia can dedicate some resources/capital with an unconventional approach. The office of the Chief scientist perhaps should scan the horizon and try to bring companies work together.
What are the top two or three factors required for a successful hydrogen export industry?
Projects similar to Latrobe valley hydrogen (from coal) export to Japan should be initiated with other countries such as South Korea
What are the top two or three opportunities for the use of clean hydrogen in Australia?
Recreational sector such as Camping ,Scuba diving ( Oxygen could be useful as well) Recent incident of fishes dying Murray darling river, could be prevented by aerating with oxygen generated from electrolysis while simultaneously providing electricity to Farmers or simply providing hydrogen as fuel.
What are the main barriers to the use of hydrogen in Australia?
Economics Lack of Education
What are some examples where a strategic national approach could lower costs and shorten timelines for developing a clean hydrogen industry?
Provide subsidy to selected communities Encourage defence industry to adopt it as a lead user in Australia. Encourage use of hydrogen in Australia's Antarctica mission where diesel spill is a serious issue
What are Australia’s key technology, regulatory and business strengths and weaknesses in the development of a clean hydrogen industry?
Business: For any technology to thrive, it needs demand/end users. Instead of vying to complete with conventional mainstream transport and logistics players, the goal should be the recreational industry where people would be willing to pay a premium for hydrogen. Special trailers fitted with Fuelcell and hydrogen cylinders, should be made available for hire at a reasonable price along with a free program to educate people how to use it. Partnership with Bunnings would be an ideal place to start with. Technology : Integrating technologies developed in other sectors with existing state of the art may bring further refinement/technical maturity Strength can be created by allocating some resources/capital.
What workforce skills will need to be developed to support a growing clean hydrogen industry?
Perhaps similar to CNG standards, Australia should standardise both the parts and process. To begin with, parts from proven lab scale suppliers such as Swagelok should be made mandatory along with subsidy (for safety reasons). Note : Swagelok parts are expensive. Parts not designed specific to hydrogen, may suffer from Embrittlement issues.
What areas in hydrogen research, development and deployment need attention in Australia? Where are the gaps in our knowledge?
Recent developments in Quantum computing, in particular the low temp/thermal insulation to prevent heat leaking into the system. Those methods should be explored further to test if the conversion of Para hydrogen to Ortho hydrogen can be supressed while storing hydrogen in cryogenic state. Such a system would minimise the Boil-off losses significantly. (Theoretically the penalty for Cryogenic storage is 25% of the energy content. However in practice it can get as high as 40%!)
Do you have any other comments or submissions to this process?
Apart from renewables and coals , the local Councils could use the organic waste to generate syn gas and in conjuction with water gas shift reaction, hydrogen can be generated. Also methanol or DME can be used as storage medium.